Task 1 Some professors prefer to give regular quizzes. Some prefer to give surprising quizzes. Please talk about the advantages and/or disadvantages of surprising quizzes.
Task 2 Some people prefer to stay in touch with their friends and family members while traveling. Others prefer not to get in touch and stay alone. Which do you prefer and why?
Task 3 阅读
标题： 学校决定把早上 8:00 的课往后挪一小时到 9：00。原因：很多学生老师都 feel sleepy，这样一来可以让同学们睡眠充足，更好地听课，而来可以让教授早上有更多时间备课。
原因 1：学生如果知道了这个决定，前一天晚上就会熬夜，stay up late，和朋友出去玩，不会合理安排时间，所以这个决定是没有用的。原因 2：对于住的很远的教授来说，这样一来可能会开车堵在路上，路上需要花更多时间。
Task 4 阅读
标题：weather modification 定义：科学家利用技术手段来让糟糕的天气变好，但这种影响只是暂时性的。
例子：例如在机场，当天气 foggy 的时候，科学家就会向云层中发射二氧化碳，让大气中的水蒸气凝结成固体降到地表，这样可见度就会上升，飞行员就能够清晰地看到机场，从而安全降落。
问题：男生过几天就要参加音乐会表演了，但是他的 uniform 不合身,裤子太长了，看着很邋遢。
解决方案 1：自己重新换一套 uniform。
话题：2 kinds of thinking modes
要点 1： think fast and automatically 帮助解决不假思索的问题。
要点 2：think slow and deliberately 帮助解决复杂问题。
阅读：支撑英国一个探险家 Drake 发现了 British Columbia 的三个理由
1. Drake 的 diary 可以支撑，因为里面有记录了极端天气，不可能出现在加利福尼亚这个地区，而在以北地区，也就在 British Columbia 范围内
2. Drake 的 report 可以支撑，因为里面有一种 Pole,这种 pole 是 British Columbia 专属的
3. Drake 发现了 British Columbia，但是需要保密，只能告知 British 当局，所以隐藏了信息力：反对(不要 take seriously)
1. 因为听力发现 British Columbia 很多 old trees have growth rings that indicate the old trees stop growing or grow more slowly. 树里面有大量的 growth rings,所以证明在那个时候天气很恶劣，而这种恶略的天气在British Columbia 不会出现。
2. 确实这种 pole 是 British Columbia 专属的，但是上需要有一些 caves ,关于各种话题的 caves 但是我们在 report 里面并没有发现这种带有 cave 的pole 如果真的隐藏了信息只是告知了 British 当局，那么当局会派遣 sailors 去那个地方，但是我们没有发现任何 sailors。
如果给朋友推荐 reduce living expense 的方式：
2. 不买最新款的手机，buy less frequently
3. Buy cheap foods and cook home(不要经常在外面吃)
Which way you will recommend to your friend and why
Conversation 1 话题分类：student and literature professor 内容回忆：学生去找教授问一个关于一本书的问题顺便咨询自己即将写的一篇 essay，学生因为读书受到启发也想写一个有主角的文章，但是名字没有确定，是因为她想让任何一个读到的读者都可以有共鸣，教授鼓励她这是 realistic romantic fiction，并且表示如果写的好包含的很多文学因素，会给她多一些 credit。 Conversation 2 话题分类：学生和 registration 工作人员内容回忆：学生想在网上选择一个学科，但是选择不了，但是当开始注册中心的人以为她不会注册就告诉她注册流程，学生表示知道如何注册但是网上已经不能再选课了;工作人员建议选下个学期的，因为课程已满;但是学生表示自己即将毕业，没有时间，另外还要实习经历也没有时间再等了。工作人员建议去找一个那个课程的教授，但是学生说教授在加拿大做研究;工作人员建议先把问题尽量发聩出来，他会尽全力去帮忙但是不知道是否可以帮的上，他有一个认识的朋友就是这么解决的。
Lecture 1 学科分类：地质学标题：earth science 内容回忆：主要讲我们常见的 desert,在 desert 上面会有一层 pavement, 是由 stone 和土组成的。不同的区域会和条件会形成不同类型的沙漠，有些地区甚至会出现花和植物
Lecture 2 学科分类：艺术标题：梵高画家内容回忆： 追溯历史会有很多画家，有两个不同的流派，但是画家们都为了能够让别人记住自己会用一些特殊的技巧;里面提到了梵高，他也为了能被别人记住而做了一些事情，而且会鼓励和自己同一流派的画家们。
Lecture 3 学科分类：历史标题： 早期文明内容回忆：文章讲的是人类历史早期文明，在中东的一个地方可以追溯到早期文明，为了生存人们会砍树，数少了，雨比较多，river 就形成了，水里 salt 增多，还发现了人们使用 brown 的痕迹。
Lecture 4 学科分类：生物标题： 花和蝙蝠的共生关系内容回忆：主要描述花和生物的之间的 ecosystem 的关系;有一种提了新概念的花，被教授提出来，一个女生提问说这种花和别的花的区别;教授说这种花比较特殊，只接受同类花的授粉;另外提到了生物 bat, 对花授粉和花朵的影响。
内容回忆：第一段讲冰川对陆地的影响很大。冰川的重量会使大陆表面下降，这个过程时间很长，然后地球表面又要用很久的时间恢复原来的高度。比如 Husdon 和 Great lake 现在就在慢慢恢复回上次冰川世纪前的高度。第二段讲冰川的移动，随着冰川越来越大，收到重力的影响，会慢慢移动。移动的过程中，会切割岩石，推倒树木，摧毁遇到的一切植被生物。第三段讲到在平坦的地方形成的冰川会移动缓慢，朝各个方向发展。而在山谷形成的冰川，因为垂直的角度大，所以会形成 V 形冰川。而原本是 V 形山谷会形成 U 冰川。当冰川融化后，会变成坡度很大的地形。很多现在的瀑布就是这么来的。最后一段说到冰川会形成很多地形，比如 horn，ridge。词汇题：in response to = as a result of
题目：Easter island statues
Thermal Stratification Physical characteristics of aquatic environments at different depths such as salt level, light, inorganic nutrients, degree of acidity, and pressure all play key roles in the distribution of organisms. One of the most important physical features is thermal stratification.
When solar radiation strikes water, some is reflected, but most penetrates the surface and is ultimately absorbed. Although water may appear transparent, it is much denser than air and absorbs radiation rapidly. In clear water, 99 percent of the solar radiation is absorbed in the upper 50 to 100 meters. Longer wavelengths of light are absorbed first; the shorter wavelengths (which have more energy) penetrate farther, giving the depths their characteristic blue color.
This rapid absorption of sunlight by water has two important consequences. First, it means that photosynthesisthe process by which plants use the energy of sunlight to produce the organic carbon compounds necessary for lifecan only occur in surface waters where the light intensity is sufficiently high. Species that produce their own organic carbon compounds are called primary producers, and they are the base of the marine food web. Virtually all of the photosynthesis that supports the rich life of oceans and lakes comes from plants living in the upper 10 to 30 meters of water. Along shores and in very shallow bodies of water, some species such as kelp are rooted to the bottom. These plants may attain considerable size and structural complexity, and may support diverse communities of organisms. In the open waters that cover much of the globe, however, the primary producers of organic carbon are tiny, often one-celled algae (called phytoplankton), which are suspended in the water. Zooplankton, tiny invertebrates that feed on phytoplankton, migrate vertically on a daily cycle: up into the surface waters at night to feed and down into the dark, deeper waters during the day to escape predatory fish that rely on light to detect prey.
Second, the rapid absorption of sunlight by water means that only surface water is heated. The density of pure water is greatest at 4¡ãC and declines as the water's temperature rises above or falls below this point. When solar radiation heats the water surface above 4°C, the warm surface water becomes lighter than the cool, deeper water, and so tends to remain on the surface, where it may be heated further and become even less dense. In tropical areas and in temperate climates during the summer, the surfaces of oceans and lakes are usually covered by a thin layer of warm water. Unless these bodies of water are shallow, the deep water below this layer is much colder (sometimes near 4¡ãC). The change in temperature between the warm surface water and the cold, deep water is called the thermocline. Mixing of the surface water by wave action determines the depth of the thermocline and maintains relatively constant temperatures in the water above it.
Tropical lakes and oceans show pronounced permanent stratification of their physical properties, with warm, well-oxygenated, and lighted surface water giving way to frigid, dark, deep water almost devoid of oxygen. Oxygen cannot be replenished at great depths where there are no photosynthetic organisms to produce it, and the stable thermal stratification prevents mixing and reoxygenation by surface water. Only relatively few organisms can live in such extreme conditions. The waste products and dead bodies of organisms living in the surface waters sink to the depths, taking their mineral nutrients with them. The lack of vertical circulation thus limits the supply of nutrients to the phytoplankton above. Consequently, deep tropical lakes are often relatively unproductive and depend on continued input from streams for the nutrients required to support life.
The situation is somewhat different in temperate and polar waters. Deep lakes, in particular, undergo dramatic seasonal changes: they develop warm surface temperatures and a pronounced thermocline in summer, but freeze over in winter. Twice each year, in spring and fall, the entire water column attains equal temperature and equal density; moderate winds may then generate waves that mix deep and shallow water, producing what is called overturn. This semiannual mixing carries oxygen downward and returns inorganic nutrients to the surface. Phosphorus and other nutrients may be depleted during the summer; overturn replenishes these nutrients by stimulating the growth of phytoplankton.
1. The word ultimately in the passage is closest in meaning to A. probably B. quickly C. eventually D. frequently
2. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true about solar radiationwhen it strikes water
A. Longer wavelengths travel farther.
B. Most of it is absorbed near the surface.
C. It is not absorbed by cloudy water.
D. More long wavelengths than short wavelengths are absorbed.
3. The word Virtually in the passage is closest in meaning to
4. According to paragraph 3, all of the following are true of kelp EXCEPT:
A. They are found at the bottom of shallow waters.
B. They are the primary producers of organic carbon.
C. They can grow very large.
D. They are a source of food for a variety of organisms.
5.The word suspended in the passage is closest in meaning to A. dissolved B. floating C. invisible D. released
6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Zooplankton move up into surface waters at night to feed on phytoplankton, and down into deep, dark waters in daytime to avoid detection by predatory fish.
B.Zooplankton migrate vertically on a daily basis in order to feed on phytoplankton, following them up into surface waters by day and down into dark, deeper waters at night.
C.Unlike zooplankton, which migrate between surface waters and deeper waters, predatory fish must rely on the daytime light of surface waters to detect prey.
D. Zooplankton are so tiny that they can only be detected by predatory fish in the light conditions of surface water, where they feed on phytoplankton.
7. According to paragraph 4, what is a thermocline
A. The deep, cold layer of water below the surface of oceans and lakes
B. The thin layer of warm water on the surface of oceans and lakes
C. The change in density of surface water as it is continually heated
D. The point at which the temperature of water in oceans and lakes changes from warm to cold
8. The word replenished in the passage is closest in meaning to A. absorbed B. restored C. contained D. obtained
9. According to paragraph 5, all of the following are true of the water at great depths in tropical lakes EXCEPT:
A. It has less oxygen than the surface water does.
B. It is very dark.
C. It contains relatively few living organisms.
D. It has low levels of mineral nutrients.
10. The word dramatic in the passage is closest in meaning to
11. According to paragraph 6, after overturn, deep water levels of lakes in temperate climates will contain increased amounts of A. warm water B. phosphorus C. oxygen D. phytoplankton
12. According to paragraphs 5 and 6, temperate lakes are in general more productive than tropical lakes because
A. temperate lakes receive more nutrients from incoming streams
B. the summer thermocline is relatively deep in temperate lakes
C. solar radiation penetrates more of the water in temperate lakes
D. temperate lakes experience vertical circulation of water
13. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. If the water is clouded by many microscopic organisms, absorption occurs even closer to the surface. Where would the sentence best fit Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.
14. Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text. Answer Choices
A. Sunlight is rapidly absorbed by the upper layer of water, which makes it warmer and consequently less dense than the water below.
B.Photosynthesizing plants, which provide the food and oxygen for most other forms of aquatic life, are limited to the levels of oceans and lakes where sunlight is available.
C.The diversity of plant life in shallow water makes it attractive to zooplankton.
D. As water becomes less dense and moves to the surface of the ocean or lake, it cools down and moderates the temperature of the surface.
E.Because more solar energy is absorbed by bodies of water in the tropics, the topmost layer of the thermocline is widest there. F.In the tropics, permanent thermal stratification limits the amount of life supported in deep bodies of water; however, in temperate climates, seasonal thermal stratification allows vertical circulation and mixing of water, allowing the support of more life.