Western European Guilds
P1 Up until 1000 A.D, merchant guilds (associations) were not organized into separate groups according to the merchandise they sold. In time, they did become differentiated by industry. In Florence, the more elite merchants belonged to one of the seven “major” guilds. These included the bankers, cloth merchants, spice dealers, and goldsmiths. Their status was distinct from that of the retailers, who sold cheaper commodities in local markets, and from that of artisans such as bakers, brewers, and blacksmiths. They were called the popolo grasso (the “fat people”) because of their wealth and social prominence.
1. In paragraph 1, it can be inferred that guilds before 1000 A.D. differed from guilds in later times in that earlier guilds
A) included members with different occupations in the same guild
B) sold cheaper commodities in local markets
C) did not include bankers or merchants of wealth and social prominence
D) were generally limited to artisans
2. According to paragraph 1, what was true about the “major” guilds in Florence?
A) Their membership was limited to bankers, spice dealers, cloth merchants, and goldsmiths.
B) Their membership was more varied than that of other guilds.
C) They had higher social standing than other guilds.
D) They had more members than other guilds.
3. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about retailers?
A) They were members of the same guilds as artisans.
B) They mainly sold products obtained from the major guilds.
C) They belonged to the group referred to as the popolo grasso.
D) They did not have a high social status in Florence.
P2 ⬛ The members of merchants’ upper guilds became the city’s governors, constituting a “patriciate” – not a nobility, with its ancestral military associations, but an urban ruling class. ⬛ As it assumed near-permanent control of the higher offices and responsibilities of leadership, the patriciate became hereditary and jealous of its authority. ⬛ It rarely permitted new men into its circle. ⬛ These men were also the main patrons of building and the arts.
P3 The lesser traders and artisans who produced what they sold gathered in the craft guilds. Their roster varies from city to city, but bakers, brewers, and barrelmakers generally figured among them, along with makers of purses and hats, and even physicians and notaries (the trained professionals who wrote deeds, contracts, wills, and other important documents). These guild members worked not for a wage but for the profit on the goods they produced. They were both capitalists, who invested in workshops, tools, and materials, and laborers, equipped with special skills. Skill was critical in the medieval industrial system, the success of which rested on the performance of each individual worker. To assure the high quality of the products, the craft guilds insisted on rigorous observance of minimum standards in manufacture.
4. The word “rigorous” in the passage is closest in meaning to
5. According to paragraph 3, which of the following was generally true of craft guild members?
A) They had specialized skills which were critical to their success.
B) They depended on investors to equip their workshop.
C) They received wages only if they did not make a profit.
D) They did not own their own workshops.
P4 Guilds also concerned themselves with quantities – the exact weight and measure of goods sold, and the precise value of coin paid. Together with the town governments, they helped overcome the weakening of standards that had occurred throughout Europe after the disintegration of the Roman Empire. Of particular concern to the towns was the manufacture of reliable coins, especially silver, in which virtually all wages and most local purchases were paid.
6. The purpose of paragraph 4 is to
A) illustrate the methods used by guilds to enforce minimum standards in manufacture
B) provide further examples of functions performed by guilds
C) help explain why guilds appeared throughout Europe only after the disintegration of the Roman Empire
D) support the idea that virtually all the responsibilities of urban leadership were in the hands of guild members
P5 Guilds regulated the training of new workers. Training began with apprenticeship, in which a young boy was apprenticed to a guild master. The period of apprenticeship was from seven to fourteen years. At the end of that term, the apprentice would become a journeyman. When the journeyman could demonstrate his superior skills – in some towns by completing a “masterpiece” – he might be admitted to the guild as a master, but only if the guild approved of the person and was willing to accept new members. By 1250, entrance to a guild was often limited to the sons of masters.
7. According to paragraph 5, what happened to apprentices immediately after their period of apprenticeship ended?
A) They were accepted as members of the guild.
B) They graduated to become journeymen.
C) They began training with a guild master.
D) They submitted work they had produced for consideration as a “masterpiece.”
P6 In return for their members’ compliance with tough standards, the guilds bestowed upon them the privilege of monopoly. Nonmembers could not engage in the trade except as apprentices or journeymen. Prices were set at a level considered “just.” That regulation limited competitive practices such as price-cutting, and prevented the free floating of prices in accord with shifts in supply or demand. Workshops were small, and guild rulers kept them that way, limiting the amount of equipment that any master might have to prevent him from surpassing the others and breaking the fellowship of the guild circle. If guild regulations kept quality of production high, they also discouraged competition and retarded the development of new and more productive modes of manufacture.
8. What role does the sentence “Nonmembers could not engage in the trade except as apprentices or journeymen” play?
A) It clarifies the way guilds gave the privilege of monopoly to their members.
B) It provides an example of the kind of tough standards the guilds demanded from their members.
C) It explains how the guilds managed to set prices at a level considered “just.”
D) It proves that the guilds were not concerned about limiting competition.
9. The phrase “in accord with” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A) in addition to
B) corresponding to
D) instead of
10. According to paragraph 6, why did guild rulers keep workshops small?
A) Because there was only a limited amount of equipment available to supply all the workshops
B) Because they wanted to prevent any of the masters from becoming much more successful than the others
C) Because they did not want prices to rise beyond the level they considered just
D) Because that was the only way to make sure that quality of production was maintained
P7 Guilds served other functions beside economic ones. They were a kind of “brotherhood” (although they did enroll some women), with a sense of solidarity, of common purpose and identity, similar to other overlapping communal and confraternal gatherings so frequent in medieval society. In the towns, in fact, guilds served many of the functions performed elsewhere by the village community or the protective church. Members gathered for banquets, assumed the responsibility to fund civic or religious festivals, staged processions and plays. They pooled funds for the funeral expenses of members and their families, and ensured the protection of members’ widows and orphans. Above all, the personal associations made through the guilds yielded practical benefits and were emotionally sustaining.
11. The word “solidarity” in the passage is closest in meaning to
D) well being
12. According to paragraph 7, the guilds did all of the following EXCEPT
A) provide banquets for the religious and village leaders
B) provide members with a sense of identity and common purpose
C) care for the widows and orphans of members
D) help pay the funeral expenses of members and their families
13. Look at the four squares [⬛] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
They also had political power.
Where would the sentence best fit?
14. Prose Summary
In Western Europe, guilds played a significant role in urban society during the medieval period.
A) Guilds originally developed primarily to serve the supportive functions traditionally performed by the village community or the village church since no institutions existed in cities to fill that role.
B) The status of each profession’s guild varied from city to city depending on how rich its members were.
C) Members of the elite merchant guilds made up the patriciate, a hereditary ruling class with near-permanent control of higher offices and leadership in urban areas.
D) Artisans belonged to craft guilds, which regulated the training of workers, secured a monopoly for their members, and provided important social benefits.
E) Guild rules ensured the high quality and correct weight and measure of goods sold, and guilds helped maintain the reliability of coins.
F) Because guilds aimed to be a kind of brotherhood, the only women they enrolled were the widows of masters.
Listen to a conversation between a student and his Engineering professor
1. Why does the man go to see his professor?
A) To discuss an email the received from her
B) To request more time to finish a report
C) To discuss a problem with a recent assignment
D) To review an idea for a report that he is working on
2. What does the professor point out about the man’s report? [choose three answers]
A) It omitted key information.
B) It provided a good definition of “roll.”
C) It confused the definitions of “pitch” and “yaw.”
D) It accurately explained what torque is.
E) It included an example that did not relate to the topic.
3. What can be inferred from the speakers’ discussion of pitch?
A) It is required for an airplane to take off.
B) It is essential for turning an airplane to the left or right.
C) It is an undesirable type of rotation.
D) It requires more torque than either roll or yaw does.
4. Why does the professor mention crosswinds?
A) To illustrate the relationship between torque and speed
B) To clarity a misunderstanding about roll
C) To emphasize the importance of torque in marine environments
D) To help explain how a plane’s rudder is used
5. Why does the professor mention a research paper?
A) To remind the man that she still needs to approve his topic
B) To suggest that the man choose a topic that is not too difficult for him
C) To inform the man of a change in the due date
D) To point out an opportunity for the man to improve his overall grade
Listen to part of a lecture in a Biology class
1. What does the professor mainly discuss?
A) The evolution of nonessential behaviors in some animal species
B) A food-hunting strategy used by herring gulls
C) A study of how some bird species conserve energy
D) Evidence that helps support a claim about an animal behavior
2. What does the professor say about the researchers when she discusses the ground over which the drop-catch behavior occurred?
A) They had marked the ground to determine whether herring gulls stayed in their own territories while drop-catching.
B) They observed that the area contained fewer sticks and broken shells than live clams.
C) They were not surprised that most drop-catches occurred over soft ground.
D) They expected the herring gulls to drop-catch mostly over rocky areas.
3. According to the research, how was drop-catch behavior affected when the weather got colder?
A) The behavior generally increased because the herring gulls needed to be more active.
B) The behavior generally decreased because the herring gulls needed to conserve energy.
C) The behavior occurred more often when other herring gulls were nearby.
D) The behavior involved a wider variety of objects.
4. What does the professor say about how herring gulls are affected by wind?
A) On windy days, herring bulls are more likely to engage in drop-catch behavior.
B) On windy days, herring gulls tend to drop-catch at lower altitudes.
C) On windy days, it is more difficult for herring gulls to find food.
D) On windy days, herring gulls wait for longer intervals between each drop-catch.
5. Why does the professor mention mammals such as kittens and monkeys?
A) To explain the basis for one of the predictions made by the researchers
B) To suggest that one finding from the research on herring gulls might also be true for mammals
C) To make a point about the energy required to engage in play behavior
D) To point out that play behavior in animals does not always involve objects
6. What does the professor imply about the theft detection hypothesis?
A) She believes that it should be tested independently of other hypotheses.
B) She used to think it was probably true, but she has changed her mind.
C) She is surprised that it is so strongly supported by the new research.
D) Her opinion that it is true has not changed.
Listen to part of a lecture in a Psychology class
1. What is the lecture mainly about?
A) Ways that people can improve their ability to self-regulate
B) The importance of physical activity for achieving optimal brain function
C) Parts of the brain responsible for certain mental activities
D) The effect that making choices has on acts of self-regulation
2. Why does the professor mention supermarkets and coffee shops?
A) To make the point that people today have to make a vast number of choices
B) To argue that self-control is now more important than ever before
C) To distinguish between two types of decision making
D) To describe the settings of the experiments in the study that the class will discuss
3. What did the researchers hypothesize about decision making?
A) It can be affected by the kinds of food that people eat.
B) It is involved in the ability to perceive colors.
C) It uses the same resource that self-regulation does.
D) It can be improved with repeated and conscious effort.
4. Why does one of the students describe a time he shopped for a cell phone and then tried to solve math problems?
A) To point out a difference he has noticed between easy and difficult choices
B) To offer his own support for a key idea of the study that the class is discussing
C) To express his opinion that carrying out enjoyable activities does not deplete mental resources
D) To point out what he thinks may be a problem with the experiment the class is discussing
5. In the first experiment described in the discussion, what did the researchers ask the participants to do in order to measure self-regulation?
A) Solve a series of complex math problems
B) Consume a liquid with a bad taste
C) Try to identify the flavors of unlabeled soft drinks
D) Try to remember all the product categories they had seen on a list
6. What did the researchers learn from the experiment in which the participants were asked to choose gifts for themselves?
A) Choosing for oneself requires more self-control than choosing for others.
B) Both self-control and decision making can be influenced through the use of rewards.
C) Rewards are particularly effective when people choose them for themselves.
D) Making many decisions depletes mental energy, even if the choices are pleasant ones.
What is the most important habit that parents should teach their children?
Why is it important for children to learn this habit?
Some people are willing to spend a lot of money on a vacation so they can do something special. Others prefer to spend very little money on their vacations. Which do you think is better? Why?
Read a letter sent to the university newspaper by a student. You will have 45 seconds to read the letter. Begin reading now.
Now listen to two students discussing the letter.
The woman expresses her opinion about the suggestion described in the letter. State her opinion and the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.
Read a passage from a Philosophy textbook. You will have 45 seconds to read the passage. Begin reading now.
Now listen to part of a lecture in a Philosophy class.
Explain how the professor’s experience in the café illustrates the concept of a sweeping generalization.
Imagine you have been offered jobs by two different companies at the same rate of pay. One of the companies will provide you with many interesting and challenging projects to work on, but it offers very few vacation days. The job at the other company does not seem very interesting or challenging, but offers more vacation days. Which job would you prefer and why?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.